Tube bend radius chart

You should use this calculator to compare materials, diameters, and wall thicknesses to find out how to make your designs safer. For example, lets say your local metal distributor has 1. You pick them both up and look at them, and they both feel pretty beefy.

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But you look at the thin wall on the 1. You can also look at individual parts of a roll cage under load, but please understand that evaluating roll cages is work done by trained professionals and any evaluation you do on individual parts does not indicate the overall safety of the structure.

Material is nominal size material is commonly under nominal size, but within material geometry specs, like. Loading in the middle of the longest tube is a worst case for stress on a cage member.

Square tube assumes bending with one side parallel to the load think square vs diamond. The safety factors use the numbers in the table below for strength.

The red arrow in the picture below is the load, maybe a rock or a stump. We chose the longest tube that is likely to hit during a roll blue. In this example, we are assuming we will triangulate the rear to pieces so that they are shorter than the roof member, and also assuming that a front stinger not shown will prevent the front fender bars long pieces on the left from ever being hit directly.

This example is only showing how you could consider an isolated load on one part of your roll cage. In a real rollover, the weight of your vehicle will not be a static load on just one tube. Your vehicle will be moving, with many tubes in the roll cage supporting constantly changing loads during the roll.

You may also want to consider that a moving vehicle will put more load on a tube than a stopped vehicle. One other consideration during a real rollover is that when a tube bends, the shape of the roll cage changes and more tubes will come in contact with the ground to support the vehicle. All of this discussion about more than one tube sharing the load is to illustrate the fact that there is more to roll cage stress analysis than just looking at one tube at a time.

We hope you are able to use this tool to learn and evaluate parts of your design. Use the color coded table below to quickly see how much each material and tube size will weigh per foot all materials are round tube.Many call tube bending a black art, a mysterious process with unavoidable trial and error. But in reality, the basic principles have remained the same for decades. Pipe, usually used to transport fluid or air, is specified by its nominal pipe size see Figure 1.

Also, every pipe schedule has a nominal wall thickness. This variation should be accounted for, especially for bending processes using precise, tight-fitting tooling on small bend radii. Other bending variables include the inside bend radius sometimes called the intrados ; the outside bend radius or extrados ; and the centerline radius or the neutral linewhere neither compression nor stretching occurs.

The bend angle refers to the complementary angle of bend. The distance between bends DBB is just what it says. Like in press brake forming, tubes experience springback after bending, producing a bend that undergoes radial growth. Copper undergoes less radial growth than steel, which has less springback than stainless steel. Although some are seamless, most tubes are produced with a longitudinal weld. In tube bending, the quality, size, and consistency of that weld seam matter.

That creates problems if you want to create the perfect bend. Elongation occurs during bending, and the outside radius stretches causing wall thinningwhich the material resists. This causes the outside surface of the bend to cave in, causing ovalityor a distortion of the cross section from its original round shape.

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Some ovality is acceptable for certain applications, but unacceptable for precision work. Like any other manufacturing technology, the application requirements drive the fabrication method of choice. Specialty tube bending processes abound, some old and some new. Most tubes, though, are bent one of four ways: ram-type bending, roll bending, compression bendingor rotary draw bendin g.

Figure 1 Pipe is specified by its nominal pipe size, while tube is specified by its outside diameter.

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One of the oldest and simplest tube bending methods, it uses a hydraulically driven ram that forces a tube against rollers or pivot blocks. This method is popular in square tubing applications, for which many design the ram tool so that it deliberately compresses and slightly deforms the inside bend radius see Figure 4. This prevents wrinkling and forces the outside surface of the bend inward, producing a concave surface and preventing excessive stretching on the outside of the bend. If workpiece cosmetics are important or the application has tight bending tolerances, the ram-type method may not be the best choice.

Commonly used for large workpieces in construction, roll bending generally entails three rolls positioned in a pyramid, oriented either vertically or, for larger sections, horizontally. The rolls move to produce specific, usually very large radii. Which rolls move where depends on the machine. On some, the top roll moves up and down to produce the desired angle; on others, the two bottom rolls move and the top roll remains stationary see Figure 5.

Another machine type is the two-roll, pinch-style roll bender. For this system, the tube feeds between an upper and lower roll, while on either side two adjustable guides move to produce the desired bend angle. Many use roll bending to produce spirals. If a workpiece has a one-diameter pitch and a large radius, the operator can lift the tube after one revolution to produce a continuous coil.

Some applications, including those with a larger coil pitch, require an additional roll that guides the tube outward as the coil is being formed.

Compression bending uses a roller or compression die sometimes called a follow block to bend the workpiece around a stationary bend die Figure 6. The system clamps the workpiece just behind the rear tangent point. This method is most common in symmetrical workpieces—those with identical bends on either side—often bent in one setup on a machine with two bending heads.Often, in the rolling and bending industry, we field requests asking about the minimum radius to which we can roll or bend a piece.


In some instances, an estimator can quickly say yes or no based on prior knowledge and bending experience. There are many factors to take into account when determining the minimum radius such as the material composition, shape, and size. In some instances, a rough guide for minimum radius bending would be to use a multiple of the piece diameter. For example, on a 2 inch pipe elbow, common bend measurements may be referred to as 2D, 3D, or 5D. In these cases, the 2D would reference a centerline bend radius of two times the diameter.

This type of bending is usually performed on a rotary draw bender for speed and precision, which requires specific tooling built for each bend. So, even though it may be possible to give a piece a 2D or 3D bend, a 3.

tube bend radius chart

For tight rotary draw bending, maintaining a bend radius that is a whole number multiple may increase the capability of the steel bender to meet your needs. While it may not be a minimum for every bender, a 3D bend radius is a commonly used starting point for minimum radius bends.

As a piece size gets larger, pre-made tooling for tight bends will be less common. In these cases, the minimum radius will likely need to increase beyond a 3D size. Another important factor to consider when looking at pipe or tubing is the wall thickness of the piece to be bent. Increasing the wall thickness on a tight radius bend generally improves the final quality of a rolled tube as well as lowers the minimum radius a piece can be rolled with minimal distortion issues.

Material used can also change the minimum bend radius. One previous job which provides a good example of this used some 8 x 4 aluminum tubing rolled the hardway to a 16 foot radius. The same tubing rolled in carbon steel could be pulled much tighter. However, the aluminum tubing began to crack, possibly due to age-hardening coupled with the tight radius.

To solve the issue, the material was sent out to be stress-relieved before rolling was continued. In the end, this caused a much improved final product for the customer with no additional material cracking issues. As you can see, determining the minimum bend radius for a piece has many factors to take into account.

Tube and Pipe Bending Basics Explained

Available tooling, tube size, material thickness and composition are all components that can add into what the minimum bend radius is for a piece of metal. WordPress Di Business Theme.When referring to the radius of a die, we are referring to the center-line radius CLR that results from bending.

tube bend radius chart

CLR is the distance from the center of curvature to the centerline axis of the pipe. Using the image below, you can see how the radius of a bend has a significant impact on the resulting part.

tube bend radius chart

When choosing a die, factors that will affect the CLR you choose include the material type and grade to be bent, wall thickness, the OD, the application or design of the end product, and overall appearance required.

This value is the radius you obtain when bending with the die. Material will spring or stretch open after it is bent; think of coiling a wire around a pencil — release the wire and it will fall off the pencil. Because of this stretching, you will find that the CLR of a bent piece of material is slightly larger than the CLR listed on the die. When using Bend-Tech Software, this value is used to specify how much stretching and compressing will occur during each bend.

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This value is obtained using a calibration test, by bending a test piece of material and measuring the resulting legs. Pro-Tools sells a full line of Bend-Tech software to fit the needs of any metal fabricator. Wall thickness is the distance between the outside diameter and the inside diameter of the pipe measured in thousandths of an inch. For pipe: Schedule determines wall thickness. It's important to use accurate calipers when measuring this value; a tape measure or well-trained eye are not accurate enough in this case.

The relationship between outside diameter and wall thickness has an important bearing on selecting a die. The Pro-Tools die charts list minimum and maximum wall thickness for the standard die sizes we carry. The cause of springback is uneven stretching of material during a bend. The centerline material is trying to return to its original shape, yet is constrained by the unyielding material on either side.

The effect is noticed when the material is taken out of the bender. Springback must be compensated for by adding the springback factor the number of degrees that a material springs back to the desired degree of bend. You can easily figure out the springback factor by performing test bends.

Springback is not a constant factor for all materials and can even change within materials of the same OD and wall thickness. It's extremely important to perform test bends on each batch of material you buy. If you want to bend a piece of tubing to 90 degrees and you determined in your test bends that the material will spring back 7 degrees, you must bend the tubing 7 degrees past 90 97 degrees to achieve your desired degree bend when you remove the tubing from the bender.

This is true for all sizes of pipe less than NPS Based on the NPS and schedule of a pipe, the pipe outside diameter OD and wall thickness can be obtained from reference tables such as those below.

Tube and pipe basics: How to achieve the perfect bend

Pipe is sometimes used in structural applications like handrails, but its intended use is to transport substances which can flow i. The ID determines the ability of the pipe to carry materials.

ID, coupled with wall thickness, determines specifications like burst pressure. Like tubing, pipe is manufactured in different ways for different needs and applications. There are three ways to manufacture pipe. The molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards the inside mold wall, where it solidifies after cooling.

Die Sets. Tube and Pipe Bending Basics Explained To get started bending tube or pipe in your shop, Pro-Tools has put together these basic metal fabrication terms to make beginning your first bending experience as easy as possible. Wall Thickness: Wall thickness is the distance between the outside diameter and the inside diameter of the pipe measured in thousandths of an inch.

Springback: The cause of springback is uneven stretching of material during a bend.Steel pipe bend is a bending pipe that used to change the pipeline direction.

It is similar to pipe elbow, but differently pipe bend is longer than elbow and usually manufactured for the specific needs. So depends on different bending radius R to distinguish bend and elbow.

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In case bending radius is more than 2 times of D diameterit is pipe bend. In case bending radius in 1D or 2D, it is elbow. Steel pipe bending usually required in large diameter in oil and gas pipelines, since it has better capacity to transport the material, and long pipelines will need different radius of pipe bends to be intalled in complex conditions.

The pipe bend is bent by a set of bending equipment with two processes: Cold simmering and hot pushing. Including bending, squeezing, pressing, forging, machining and etc.

Insert the straight pipe into pipe bending machine, heat the pipe and use lever installed with different dimension of mould to bend the pipe.

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Pipe bend and elbow both for change the pipe direction, still there are a lot of differences in below aspects: Bending Radius Manufacturing Processes Different cost Application scope.

As we talked above, Steel pipe bend radius: Above 2 times of D, so there are 2D, 2. Below 1. R is radius of curvature; D is elbow or bend pipe diameter.

Bend: Could be bend directly from a finished pipe with cold bending processes, to different degrees. So by the help of simple production process with standard 1. Pipe bend is mostly required with customized radius or degrees so the processes is more complicated than elbow and cost is higher. Bend: Compatible with slower liquid and lower pressure. Elbow: Compatible with high pressure and rapid liquid. Sometimes elbows must be used in narrow sections, because the radius of curvature of the elbow is small, generally 2D, but the pipe bend could be up to 40D.

Please fill the below form and inquiry details. Or send inquiry to info octalpipefittings. Steel Pipe Bend Steel pipe bend is a bending pipe that used to change the pipeline direction. After that is 6D and 8D bend, as the compensation to complete for small degree change.

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How does steel pipe bend made? Bending Radius of Bend and Elbow. As above picture CLR could be in 1D, 1. Different of manufacturing processes.Minimum Bend Radii: The minimum bend radius data shown in these charts is measured to the inside of the bend.

The bend radii listed are standard minimum if manufacturing for aircraft and aerospace applications. Since commercial sheet metal bending can be done with less concern for stresses caused during forming operation, the radius can be near zero for thin sheet metal.

Grain Direction is formed in metal in the direction in which the sheet was rolled at the steel mill. Grain Direction is not to be confused with surface finishes made by sanding or other finishing operations. Grain direction is often specified on stainless steel in order to achieve minimum bend radius or to control spring back.

The grain can be seen by looking at a new piece of sheet metal and noticing the direction of visible lines going from one end to the other.

Below is a conversion chart that converts sheet metal gauge numbers into metal thickness. Special editing thanks to Dave Treanor. Click to see a chart of Tensile Strengths of Aluminum and Stainless. Click to see a Press Brake Tonnage Chart. Click to see our Sheet Metal Hand Brake machines. Click to see our Hydraulic Press Brake machines. Terms and Conditions. Privacy Clause. Bend Radius. Metal Slitter.

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Terms and Conditions Privacy Clause.The information below is intended to be helpful for customers who wish to learn more about enclosure design. Also, please use our online support if you have questions for our expert design staff. It is most economical to use a single bend radius throughout the design, but if necessary, you can utilize multiple radii. Use this document to choose values that are both manufacturable and meet your needs.

If you need help choosing a value, contact us at info protocase. Alternatively, you can design with any value, and we can adjust it for you later in the process. The tables below show bend radii and minimum bend sizes for materials and tooling combinations stocked by Protocase. It is possible to choose other bends, but tooling charges may apply. If you have any questions or want to discuss your design, contact us. We are here to help! Folding is the most accurate way for Protocase to bend parts.

If you can stick with folder radii, it will get your parts through our manufacturing process faster with the most precise dimensions. However, if folder radii do not work for you, we can manufacture parts using our press brakes. In fact, press brakes are more flexible and can bend certain parts that the folder just cannot do. Geometry of tooling imposes a minimum bend dimension. The diagram shows one such mechanism. Refer to the chart for values for folder as well as various press brake tooling combinations.

Tip: Use the minimum bend dimension values in the charts below for your minimum closeness of cutout to a bend. Please note: The bend radius you select may not be available if the geometry of the part will not allow us to bend with the specific tooling required to achieve that radius. Protocase Resources The information below is intended to be helpful for customers who wish to learn more about enclosure design. Watch More Tech Tip Videos. Our website is optimized for viewing on a computer.

We've crammed as much information as we could in our mobile version, but for the full experience, we recommend checking out Protocase on your computer or laptop!

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